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Fragrance

Fragrance

Many products list “fragrance” on the label, but very few name the specific ingredients that make up a “fragrance.” This lack of disclosure prevents consumers from knowing the full list of ingredients in their products.

While most fragrance chemicals are not disclosed, we do know that some are linked to serious health problems such as cancer, reproductive and developmental toxicity, allergies and sensitivities. Clearly, there is a need for stronger regulations, more research, and greater transparency.

WHAT IS FRAGRANCE?

Fragrance is defined by the FDA as a combination of chemicals that gives each perfume or cologne (including those used in other products) its distinct scent. Fragrance ingredients may be derived from petroleum or natural raw materials. Companies that manufacture perfume or cologne purchase fragrance mixtures from fragrance houses (companies that specialize in developing fragrances) to develop their own proprietary blends. In addition to “scent” chemicals that create the fragrance, perfumes and colognes also contain solvents, stabilizers, UV-absorbers, preservatives, and dyes.

These additives are frequently, but not always, listed on product labels. In contrast, the chemical components in fragrance itself are protected as trade secrets and described on the label only as “fragrance.”

In other personal care products, fragrances that are added also include the combination of ingredients that give the product a scent and that stabilize the scent. These are typically only indicated by the term “fragrance” or “parfum.”

Found In

  • Most personal care products including sunscreen, shampoo, soap, body wash, deodorant, body lotion, makeup, facial cream, skin toner, serums, exfoliating scrubs and perfume

What to look for on the label

  • Fragrance
  • Perfume
  • Parfum
  • Essential oil blend
  • Aroma

Health Concerns

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) lists 3,059 materials that are reported as being used in fragrance compounds.[1] Of these 3,059 ingredients, some have evidence linking them to health effects including cancer, reproductive toxicity, allergies and sensitivities.

A 2016 study assessed self-reported health effects from fragrance. This survey of a random sample of US residents found that 99.1% of participants are exposed to fragranced products at least once a week from their own use, others’ use, or both. Participants also reported an extensive list of health effects experienced when exposed to fragrance ranging from migraines and asthma to gastrointestinal problems and cardiovascular problems. The findings showed that a high percentage of the participants did not know of the chemicals included in fragrance and would not continue to use a fragranced product if they had previously known it emitted pollutants.[2]

Acetaldehyde: Acetaldehyde adversely affects kidneys and the reproductive, nervous and respiratory systems.[3] This chemical is listed as known or suspected to cause cancer in California’s Proposition 65.[4] Both the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program classify acetaldehyde as potentially carcinogenic to humans.[5][6]

Benzophenone: Benzophenone is linked to endocrine disruption and organ system toxicity,[7] and experimental studies suggest benzophenone may lead to several kinds of tumors.[8] Derivatives of benzophenone, such as benzophenone-1 (BP-1) and oxybenzone (BP-3), are potential endocrine disruptors.[9] Benzophenone is listed as a possible human carcinogen under California’s Proposition 65.[10]

Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA): Studies demonstrating BHA’s potential to disrupt endocrine functioning led the European Commission on Endocrine Disruption to list BHA as a Category 1 priority substance.[11][12] This chemical is also listed as a carcinogen on California’s Proposition 65.[13]

Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT): BHT irritates the eyes and skin and may adversely affect one’s growth rate and liver.[14] The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) has determined that there is moderate evidence that BHT is a human respiratory irritant.[15]

Benzyl Salicylate: Benzyl salicylate is a fragrance allergen and a potential endocrine disruptor.[16][17] The European Union restricts its use and requires that it is listed on product labels.[18][19]

Benzyl Benzoate: benzyl benzoate is a skin and eye irritant and may severely irritate, burn and sting the genitalia and scalp.[20] The European Union requires that it is listed individually on products and restricts quantity use.[21]

Butoxyethanol: Butoxyethanol is a skin, eye, nose and throat irritant. Exposure can lead to blood in the urine, vomiting and nausea with long-term damage to the kidneys, liver, lymphoid system, nervous system, respiratory system and blood cells.[22] Butoxyethanol is also a reproductive toxicant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer confirms the carcinogenicity of butoxyethanol in experimental animals.[23] Both the European Union and Canada restrict butoxyethanol in consumer products.[24][25]

Butylphenyl methylpropional: Also known by its brand name Lilial, butylphenyl methylpropionale is a scent chemical restricted in the European Union.[26] Its potential for dermal sensitization motivated the International Fragrance Association to also restrict its use in fragrance products.[27]

Chloromethane (methyl chloride): Chloromethane can have both acute and chronic effects on the nervous system and also adversely impacts the liver, kidneys and skin.[28] It is listed under California’s Proposition 65 as a developmental toxicant.[29]

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride): Dichloromethane is linked to mammary gland tumors in experimental animals[30] and may be an occupational carcinogen.[31] It is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen according to the National Toxicology Program[32] and possibly carcinogenic to humans according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer.[33] Its use in fragrance products is restricted by the European Commission and prohibited by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.[34]

Diethyl phthalate (DEP): DEP is an irritant of eyes, skin and the respiratory tract. It is a potential endocrine disruptor and has been linked to reproductive and nervous system toxicity.[35][36]

Essential Oil Mixtures: Despite being fragrance ingredients of ‘natural origin,’ some essential oils are allergens and their allergenicity is no different than synthetic fragrance ingredients.[37] The FDA treats essential oil ingredients the same as other personal care product ingredients.[38] The International Fragrance Agency restricts citrus oils and other plant-derived organic chemicals containing essential oils due to their phototoxic effects.[39] Essential oils may contain ingredients such as pulegone or methyleugenol that may be carcinogenic and alter endocrine functioning.[40][41][42]

Eugenyl methyl ether (Methyleugenol): It can affect multiple endocrine systems[43] and induce mammary gland tumors in experimental animals.[44] Methyluegenol is a naturally occurring substance used in essential oils. It is a possible human carcinogen according to California’s Proposition 65,[45] the National Toxicology Program,[46] and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.[47]

Formaldehyde: Authoritative entities on chemical hazards agree that formaldehyde is a known human carcinogen.[48][49] It is banned in cosmetics and toiletries in Japan and Sweden while the European Union and Canada restricts its use.[50][51] California’s Proposition 65 states that in its gas form, formaldehyde is a probable carcinogen.[52] In occupational settings, formaldehyde is a cancer hazard and immune system sensitizer.[53]

MEA, DEA, TEA – ethanolamines: When ethanolamines are used in the same product as certain preservatives that break down into nitrogen, they can form nitrosamines. Nitrosamines are a class of more than a dozen different chemicals, which the International Agency for Research on Cancer lists individually as possible and known carcinogens.[54] The National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens lists 15 individual nitrosamines as reasonably anticipated human carcinogens.[55]

Methanol: Methanol is a developmental toxicant according to California’s Proposition 65,[56] and the European Union has concentration restrictions of methanol in cosmetics.[57]

Oxybenzone (BP-3): This UV-filter is a derivative of benzophenone and a potential endocrine disruptor.[58] Oxybenzone can accumulate in the blood, kidneys and liver and may be toxic to liver cells.[59][60] The European Union restricts oxybenzone at up to 10 percent maximum concentration in cosmetics.[61]

Propyl paraben (Propyl p-hydroxybenzoate): Propyl paraben is a possible endocrine disruptor.[62] Denmark banned propyl paraben and other paraben forms in cosmetic products for children up to 3 years old,[63] which then motivated the European Commission to implement restrictions reducing the concentrations of propyl paraben in cosmetic products.[64]

Resorcinol: Resorcinol changes liver, kidney and spleen functioning and adversely affects the cardiovascular and nervous system.[65] The European Commission lists this chemical as a Category 1 endocrine disruptor,[66] and the European Union restricts concentrations and requires labeling of products that contain these chemicals.[67] In Japan, the form Resorcin is banned in all types of cosmetics.[68]

Styrene: Styrene can be toxic to red blood cells and the liver when taken orally and toxic to the central nervous system when inhaled.[69] It is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen[70][71] and is a Category 1 endocrine disruptor in living organisms according to the European Commission.[72]

Synthetic Musks (Tonalide , Galaxolide, Musk Ketone, Musk Xylene): These chemicals are used in fragrances and added to personal care products. Synthetic musks are highly bioaccumulative and have been detected in breast milk, body fat, and the cord blood of newborn babies.[73][74][75][76] Studies show that these compounds may disrupt hormone systems[77][78][79][80][81] and may be reproductive,[82][83] development,[84][85] and organ system toxicants.[86][87]

Titanium dioxide (TiO2): Inhalation exposure can damage lungs and the respitory system. TiO2 may be an occupational carcinogen[88] and is listed as carcinogenic on California’s Proposition 65.[89] The International Agency for Research on Cancer also lists this chemical as a possible human carcinogen.[90]

1,4-Dioxane: 1,4-dioxane is a by-product of a process to make other chemicals less harsh. Because it is a contaminant produced during manufacturing, the U.S. FDA does not require 1,4-dioxane to be listed as an ingredient on product labels. However, this chemical is known or suspected to cause cancer or birth defects according to California’s Proposition 65.[91] The International Agency for Research on Cancer lists this chemical as possibly carcinogenic to humans while the National Toxicology Program categories 1,4-dioxane as reasonably anticipated to be carcinogenic to humans.[92][93]

Our own product testing revealed the presence of two chemicals ethylbenzene and vinyl acetate in products marketed to kids. These ingredients were not listed on labels, leading us to suspect they may have been used in fragrance. These chemicals are not on the IFRA list of fragrance ingredients, but our 2016 report shows that these possible carcinogens could be lurking in personal care products and kids cosmetics.[94]

Ethylbenzene: Ethylbenzene is a volatile organic compound that has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible carcinogen.[95] It is also listed on California’s Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens to cause cancer.[96] Ethylbenzene is mainly used in the manufacture of styrene.[97] It is also used as a solvent, as a constituent of asphalt and naphtha, and in fuels.[98] Short-term exposure may result in respiratory effects, such as throat irritation and chest constriction, irritation of the eyes, and other effects such as dizziness.[99] Inhalation over time has shown conflicting results regarding its effects on the blood.[100]

Vinyl acetate: Vinyl acetate is primarily used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol.[101] It is also used as a raw material in the production of other chemicals, adhesives, water-based paints, nonwoven textile fibers, textile sizing’s and finishes, paper coatings, inks, films, and lacquers.[102][103] Vinyl acetate is listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible carcinogen.[104] Short-term inhalation exposure has resulted in eye irritation and upper respiratory tract irritation.[105]

Vulnerable Populations

Regulations

Current laws do not provide the FDA with the authority to require disclosure or public safety of fragrance ingredients. In the U.S., companies are required to list ingredients on the label; however, this regulation excludes the individual constituents of fragrance in order to preserve fragrance trade secrets. This sustains a loophole that leads to disclosure gaps.

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) and the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) develop and set voluntary standards for chemicals in the “fragrance” component of products. The US, Canada, and Europe rely on IFRA and RIFM to identify ingredients for use in fragrance. In effect, this means the international Fragrance industry is self-regulating.

How to Avoid?

Read labels and avoid products when no information is given other than “fragrance.”

FAQs

According to the U.S. FDA, fragrance is a combination of chemicals that gives each perfume or cologne its unique scent.

Usually, fragrance is made from petroleum or botanical raw materials. Companies that make perfume and cologne buy smell chemicals from other companies called fragrance houses. These companies help make up different smells for different people’s tastes. Perfume and cologne also contain ingredients like solvents, stabilizers, UV-absorbers, preservatives, and dyes.

The fragrance ingredients are sometimes, but not always, listed on the product ingredient label. When chemicals in a fragrance are treated as confidential business information, they may only be referred to by the term fragrance or parfum.

Many personal care products have fragrances in them, such as sunscreen, shampoo, soap, body wash, deodorant, body lotion, makeup, facial cream, skin toner, serums, and perfume.

You can quickly look at the product’s ingredient label. The fragrance may be listed as fragrance, perfume, parfum, essential oil blend, or aroma.

In personal care, fragrances are made up of different ingredients that make them smell pleasant, different or stabilize the scent. Knowing what goes into the odor can be challenging because it is often only labeled as fragrance or parfum.

The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) lists almost 3,059 different chemicals used in fragrance formulations.

Many fragrance materials can cause sensitization and allergies, respiratory diseases, and irritation and can contain carcinogens, endocrine disrupters, neurotoxic chemicals, and environmental toxicants.

There are many ingredients that you should avoid, such as Acetaldehyde, Benzophenone, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), Benzyl Salicylate, Chloromethane (methyl chloride), Diethyl phthalate (DEP), Essential Oil Mixtures, Formaldehyde, MEA, DEA, TEA – ethanolamine’s, Methanol, Oxybenzone, Propylparaben.

Acetaldehyde can affect a person’s kidney, reproductive system, nervous system, and respiratory system. It is listed as a cancer-causing agent in California’s Proposition 65. Acetaldehyde has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program as potentially carcinogenic to humans.

Benzophenone has been classified as a possible human carcinogen under California’s Proposition 65. According to research published by the National Institute of Health, Benzophenone is linked to endocrine disruption and organ system toxicity. Experimental studies on its effects also suggest benzophenone may lead to several types of cancers.

BHA – Studies demonstrate BHA can disrupt endocrine function, which leads the European Commission on Endocrine Disruption to list it as a Category 1 priority substance. This chemical is also listed as a carcinogen on California’s Proposition 65.

BHT irritates the skin and eyes and also affects growth rate. There is evidence that it could also affect the lungs if it enters them; we do not know about other parts of your body, such as your liver or digestive system.

Benzyl salicylate is a fragrance allergen and a potential endocrine disruptor. When used in the E.U., it must be labeled on the product.

Benzyl benzoate can be irritating, burning, and stinging to the genitals, scalp, or skin areas. This chemical is known for its ability to sensitize individuals with some types of allergies.

Butoxyethanol is a dangerous substance. It can irritate eyes, nose, throat, and skin and lead to blood in the urine, vomiting, and nausea with prolonged damage to kidneys, liver, immune system, nervous system, and cell count over time. This substance is classified as a cancer-causing agent under the International Agency for Research on Cancer’s classification, which has resulted in both the European Union and Canada restricting its use in consumer products.

Butylphenyl methyl propionate is an aroma chemical used in fragrances. It has been prohibited from use in Europe since 2000 because of concern about sensitizing properties, but it may still be found in some U.S. fragrance products.

Chloromethane It can have acute and chronic effects on the nervous system and adversely impact the liver, kidneys, and skin. It is listed under California’s Proposition 65 as a developmental toxicant.

Dichloromethane is linked to mammary gland tumors in experimental animals. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, it is considered to be a human carcinogen according to the National Toxicology Program and carcinogenic to humans. European Union authorities ban it, and there are only exceptions made for personal hygiene items such as deodorant or cologne that contain this chemical.

Diethyl phthalate (DEP) – DEP is a dangerous irritant to your eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. This chemical can also affect your endocrine system. DEP is toxic for reproduction and the nervous system.

Despite being fragrant substances of ‘organic origin,’ some essential oils are allergens, and their allergy is the same as synthetic fragrances. The FDA treats essential oil ingredients the same as other personal care product ingredients. The International Fragrance Agency restricts citrus oils and other plant-derived organic chemicals containing essential oils due to their photosensitive effects. Essential oils may contain pulegone or methyl eugenol ingredients that may be carcinogenic and disrupt endocrine function.

Methyleugenol poisoning can lead to endocrine issues and induced tumors in laboratory animals. A little-known toxin found in some oils, Methyl eugenol, is classified as as a potential carcinogen by California’s Proposition 65 , the U.S. National Toxicology Program, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Yes, authoritative sources on chemical hazards all classify – Formaldehyde as a known human carcinogen. California’s Prop 65 clearly states that Formaldehyde can be dangerous if inhaled or exposed to it at work. It has also been banned from cosmetic products in Japan and Sweden, but it remains available in other parts of the world.

When ethanolamines are used in the same product as certain preservatives that break down into nitrogen, they can form nitrosamines. Nitrosamines are a class of more than a dozen different chemicals, which the International Agency for Research on Cancer lists individually as possible and known carcinogens. The National Toxicology Program Report on Carcinogens lists 15 individual nitrosamines as reasonably anticipated human carcinogens.

Methanol – Methanol causes developmental toxicity according to California’s Proposition 65, and the E.U. restricts concentrations of it in cosmetics.

Oxybenzone – This U.V. filter is a benzophenone derivative and may be an endocrine disruptor. Benzophenone accumulates in the blood, kidneys, and liver and can cause damage to liver cells. This is not just something that affects people who use sunscreen; benzophenone has been found in all sorts of cosmetic products.

Propylparaben may cause hormone disruption, which is why Denmark has already banned the chemical from being used in cosmetics aimed at children under three years old. Some safer beauty companies have already switched to alternative preservatives.

Resorcinol – This chemical is dangerous for the body due to its toxic effects. Resorcinol can hurt the liver, kidneys, and spleen, which will also affects the cardiovascular and nervous systems. This chemical is listed as a category 1 endocrine disruptor, according to the European Commission.

Styrene – Styrene is designated a carcinogen by both the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the National Toxicology Program. It has been linked to severe health problems such as damaging red blood cells and the liver. It also harms other parts of the body, including injuring the brain and disrupting hormone balances leading to severe repercussions.

Synthetic Musks – They are used in fragrances and personal care products. Synthetic Musks are highly bioaccumulative and are present in body fat, breast milk, and the blood cord of infants. They can disturb the hormone, reproductive, and some organ systems.

TiO2 inhalation has been found to cause lung cancer and other respiratory problems. This chemical is both toxic and carcinogenic under Proposition 65 in California. The International Agency for Research on Cancer also classifies it as a potential carcinogen.

1,4-dioxane is used in industrial processes to manufacture cosmetics, household cleaners, and industrial solvents. 1,4-dioxane is regarded as a possible human carcinogen, and many industrial solvents also contain 1,4-dioxane as an impurity. The U.S. FDA does not require labeling of 1,4-dioxane on cosmetics labels because it is an industrial contaminant not intentionally added in the manufacturing process.

Ethylbenzene – Scientists report ethylbenzene causes cancer because it is a volatile organic compound. In the manufacturing process, it was classified as a carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer and listed on California’s Proposition 65 list of known carcinogens to cause cancer. However, controversy exists in research about how long-term inhalation affects erythrocytes or red blood cells due to a lack of evidence in some animal studies. Nevertheless, scientists believe it may cause a variety of health issues when inhaled long-term because, in short-term inhalation, asthma has been noted among people exposed to this chemical.

Vinyl acetate – This colorless liquid can manufacture polyvinyl acetate and polyvinyl alcohol. Along with this, it can create other chemicals for different needs, including water-based paints, textiles in the textile sizing and finishing process, paper coatings, inks, films, or lacquers. According to studies done, vinyl acetate may be classified as a carcinogen based on the IARC claims, and short-term exposure has led to eye irritation and upper respiratory tract irritation.

Fragrances can affect everyone’s health, especially pregnant women and infants.

No Federal law requires disclosure or public safety of fragrance ingredients. This is because some perfumes are costly to develop, and fragrance houses want to keep their formulations secret, for fear that someone might copy them and devalue their investment. The International Fragrance Association (IFRA) and the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) work to protect the rights of fragrance makers, including these trade secrets protections.

The first thing you need to do is read the label on the product. If there is nothing written on the ingredient label about what’s in the fragrance, you cannot know what is in the product. If the product just lists fragrance, try to avoid using the product, as it may contain any number of chemicals that can cause health harm.

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References

[1] IFRA. IFRA Ingredients, 2015. Available online: http://www.ifraorg.org/en-us/ingredients#.VW-Cdc-6eUk. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[2] Steinemann A. Fragranced consumer products: exposures and effects from emissions. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 2016:1-6.

[3] CDC. Acetaldehyde. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2015. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0001.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[4] California Proposition 65. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2015. Available online: https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[5] IARC. Re-evaluation of some organic chemicals, hydrazine and hydrogen peroxide. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol. 71, pp 99-106, 1999. Available online: http://publications.iarc.fr/89. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[6] National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens, Fifteenth Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014. Available online: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/cancer/roc/index.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[7] OEHHA. Proposition 65. CA.gov, 2015. Available online http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[8] Rhodes MC., et al. Carcinogenesis studies of benzophenone in rats and mice. Food Chem Toxicol, vol. 45, no. 5, pp 843-851, 2007.

[9] Endocrine Disruption. TedX List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=151. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[10] California Proposition 65. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2015. Available online: http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[11] European Commission on Endocrine Disruption. Annex 1 Candidate list of 553 substances. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/bkh_annex_01.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[12] European Commission on Endocrine Disruption. Study on enhancing the Endocrine Disrupter priority list with a focus on low production volume chemical, 2007. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/endocrine/pdf/final_report_2007.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[13] California Proposition 65. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2015. Available online: http://oehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[14] CDC. Butylated Hydroxytoluene. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2014. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0246.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[15] Environmental Working Group, “Skin Deep. Butylated Hydroxytoluene.” Available online: http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/700741/BHT/. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[16] European Commission. Opinion concerning fragrance allergy in consumers. Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers, 1999. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out98_en.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[17] Charles AK, Darbre PD. 2009. Oestrogenic activity of benzyl salicylate, benzyl benzoate and butylphenylmethylpropional (Lilial) in MCF7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. J Appl Toxicol. 29(5): 422-34.

[18] European Commission. Annex III. European Commission Health and Consumers. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.results&annex_v2=III&search. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[19] European Commission. Opinion on fragrance allergens in cosmetic products. Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety, 2011. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_073.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[20] National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Database. Benzyl benzoate, CID=2345. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Benzyl-benzoate. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[21] European Commission. Annex III. European Commission Health and Consumers. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.results&annex_v2=III&search. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[22] CDC. Butoxyethanol. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2015. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0070.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[23] National Library of Medicine Databank on Chemical Effects. 2-Butoxyethanol. Hazmap, 2015. Available online: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/2-Butoxyethanol. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[24] European Commission. Butoxyethanol. European Commission Health and Consumers. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/index.cfm?fuseaction=search.details&id=31696. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[25] Health Canada. Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. 2014. Available online: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/cosmet-person/hot-list-critique/hotlist-liste-eng.php#a1. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[26] European Union. Regulation (EC) NO 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council. Official Journal of the European Union, 2009. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/health/system/files/2016-11/cosmetic_1223_2009_regulation_en_0.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[27] IFRA. P-tert-Butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (BMHCA). IFRA Standard, 2013. Available online: https://ifrafragrance.org/standards/IFRA_STD_015.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[28] OSHA. Methyl Chloride. United States Department of Labor. Available online: https://www.osha.gov/methylene-chloride. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[29] California Proposition 65. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2015. Available online: https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[30] Silent Springs. Methylene Chloride. Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database. Available online: http://sciencereview.silentspring.org/mamm_detail.cfm?cid=75-09-2. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[31] CDC. Methylene chloride. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2015. Available online:https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0414.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[32] National Toxicology Program. Report on Carcinogens, Thirteenth Edition. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2014. Available online: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/cancer/roc/index.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[33] IARC. Agents Classified by the IARC Monographs, Volumes 1-123. Available online: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/ClassificationsAlphaOrder.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[34] U.S. FDA. Prohibited and Restricted Ingredients. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015. Available online: http://www.fda.gov/cosmetics/guidanceregulation/lawsregulations/ucm127406.htm#prohibited. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[35] Endocrine Disruption. TedX List of Potential Endocrine Disruptors. Available online: http://endocrinedisruption.org/popup-chemical-details?chemid=527. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[36] CDC. Diethyl phthalate. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards, 2015. Available online: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0213.html. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[37] European Commission. Essential Oils. Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers, 2003. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/health/archive/ph_risk/committees/sccp/documents/out218_en.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[38] U.S. FDA. Aromatherapy. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2015. Available online: http://www.fda.gov/Cosmetics/ProductsIngredients/Products/ucm127054.htm#essentialoil. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[39] IFRA. IFRA Standards Library. Available online: https://ifrafragrance.org/safe-use/library. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[40] California Proposition 65. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, 2015. Available online: https://oehha.ca.gov/proposition-65. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[41] National Toxicology Program. NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of pulegone in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. National Institute of Health, 2011. Available online: https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/lt_rpts/tr563.pdf?utm_source=direct&utm_medium=prod&utm_campaign=ntpgolinks&utm_term=tr563. Accessed April 26, 2022.

[42] Henley D, Lipson N, Korach K, Bloch C. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, pp 479-485, 2007.

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